Tuesday, November 10, 2009

Alternative propulsion initiatives

The company has long worked on alternative-technology vehicles, and has recently led the industry with ethanol burning flexible-fuel vehicles that can run on either E85 (ethanol) or gasoline. The company was the first to use turbochargers and was an early proponent of V6 engines in the 1960s, but quickly lost interest as the muscle car race took hold. They demonstrated gas turbine vehicles powered by kerosene, an area of interest throughout the industry, but abandoned the alternative engine configuration in view of the 1973 oil crisis. In the 1970s and 1980s, GM pushed the benefits of diesel engines and cylinder deactivation technologies with disastrous results due to poor durability in the Oldsmobile diesels and drivability issues in the Cadillac V8-6-4 variable cylinder engines. In 1987, GM, in conjunction with AeroVironment, built the Sunraycer, which won the inaugural World Solar Challenge and was a showcase of advanced technology. Much of the technology from Sunraycer found its way into the Impact prototype electric vehicle (also built by Aerovironment) and was the predecessor to the EV1.

GM supported a compromise version of the CAFE standard increase from 27 mpg-US (8.7 L/100 km; 32 mpg-imp) to 35 mpg-US (6.7 L/100 km; 42 mpg-imp), the first such increase in over 20 years.

Hybrid electric initiative

Plug-in hybridChevrolet Volt.

Chevrolet TahoeHybrid 2009.

In May 2004, GM delivered the world's first full sized hybrid pickups, the 1/2-ton Silverado/Sierra. These hybrids did not use electrical energy for propulsion, like GM's later designs. In 2005, the Opel Astra diesel Hybrid concept vehicle was introduced. The 2006 Saturn Vue Green Line was the first hybrid passenger vehicle from GM and is also a mild design. GM has hinted at new hybrid technologies to be employed that will be optimized for higher speeds in freeway driving.

GM currently offers two types of hybrid systems. The first type, used in the Saturn Vue, Saturn Aura, and Chevrolet Malibu, is what GM calls the BAS Hybrid system a type of mild hybrid which was canceled in 2009. The second hybrid drive system, co-developed with Daimler AG and BMW, is called a "Two-Mode Hybrid." The two-mode is used by the Chevrolet Tahoe/GMC Yukon and will later be used on the Saturn Vue (cancelled), Cadillac Escalade, GM 1/2-ton pickups and possibly other vehicles.

GM's current hybrid electric models:

  • 2009 Saturn Vue Green Line Hybrid
  • 2009 Saturn Aura Green Line Hybrid
  • 2009 GMC Yukon Hybrid
  • 2009 Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid
  • 2009 Chevrolet Tahoe Hybrid
  • 2009 Cadillac Escalade Hybrid
  • 2009 Chevrolet Silverado Hybrid
  • 2009 GMC Sierra Hybrid

GM has recently introduced the concept cars Chevrolet Volt and Opel Flextreme, which are electric vehicles with back-up generators, powered by gasoline, E85, or fuel cells. According to GM, a production Chevrolet Volt will be available by late 2010 as a 2011 model.

The GM Magic Bus is a hybrid powered bus.

GM sold 843 hybrids of all types during the first quarter of 2008, according to the industry newspaper Automotive News. Compare that with Ford, which sold 5,225 hybrids during that time. CSM Worldwide, expects GM to seriously increase its hybrid output, turning the automaker into a serious contender within the next few years. He expects it to produce 40,000 to 50,000 hybrids this year, more than doubling last year's production.

All-electric vehicles

Electric car EV1 shown plugged into charging station

GM was the first american company (in the modern era) to release an all-electric automobile. In 1990, GM debuted the revolutionary "Impact" concept car at the Los Angeles Auto Show. It was the first car with zero-emissions marketed in the US in over three decades. The Impact was eventually produced as the EV1 for the 1996 model year. It was available through dealers located in only a few regions (e.g., California, Arizona, Georgia). Vehicles were leased, rather than sold, to individuals. In 2003 GM decided to cease production of the vehicles.

General Motors has announced that it is building a prototype two-seat electric vehicle with Segway. An early prototype of the Personal Urban Mobility and Accessibility vehicle—dubbed Project P.U.M.A. -- will be shown off in New York a day ahead of the press previews for the 2009 New York International Auto Show.

Plug-in hybrids

On September 16, 2008, as part of its 100th anniversary celebration, GM unveiled the "production" version of the Chevrolet Volt at the GM headquarters in Detroit.

Battery packs for electric vehicles

GM will build battery packs with LG Chem in Michigan. GM also plans to build an automotive battery laboratory in Michigan.[60] GM will take full responsibility for all the battery management systems and power electronics. The company will build a new factory in Michigan, but a specific site has yet to be announced, in part because negotiations are ongoing with state and local authorities on the usual financial incentives and approvals. LG Chem's US subsidiary, Compact Power of Troy, Michigan, has been building the prototype packs for the development vehicles and will continue to provide integration support and act as a liaison for the program.

Hydrogen initiative

Sequel, a fuel cell-powered vehicle from GM.

GM has prided its research and prototype development of hydrogen powered vehicles, to be produced in early 2010, using a support infrastructure still in a prototype state. The economic feasibility of the technically challenging hydrogen car, and the low-cost production of hydrogen to fuel it, has also been discussed by other automobile manufacturers such as Ford and Chrysler.

In June 2007, Larry Burns, vice president of research and development, said he's not yet willing to say exactly when hydrogen vehicles will be mass produced, but he said it should happen before 2020, the year many experts have predicted. He said "I sure would be disappointed if we weren't there" before 2020.

Flexible-fuel vehicles

North American market

The E85, FlexFuel, Chevrolet Impala LT 2009.

GM produces several flexible-fuel vehicles that can operate on E85 ethanol fuel or gasoline, or any blend of both. Since 2006 GM started featuring a bright yellow gas cap to remind drivers of the E85 capabilities,[62][63][64][65] and also using badging with the text "Flexfuel/E85 Ethanol" to clearly mark the car as an E85 FFV.[66][67]

GM is the North American leader in E85 flex fuel vehicles, with over 3 million FlexFuel vehicles on the road in the U.S. As of 2009, GM offers 18 ethanol-enabled FlexFuel cars and trucks in the US, and produce more than one million new FlexFuel vehicles. GM's goal is to have half of their annual vehicle production be E85 or biodiesel capable by 2012.[68]

Despite the significant amount of flex fuel vehicles sold in the US and Canada, the percentage of users actually using ethanol has been very low as many owners are not aware they owned an E85 flex or not enough E85 fueling stations are available nearby, except for the Corn Belt states, where there is a great concentration of E85 stations, as most corn ethanol is produced there.[69][70] A 2005 survey found that 68% of American flex-fuel car owners were not aware they owned an E85 flex.[71] Several critics have argued that GM and the other American automakers have been producing E85 flex models motivated by a loophole in the CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) requirements, that allows for a fuel economy credit for every flex-fuel vehicle sold, whether or not in practice these vehicles are fueled with E85.[70][72][73] This loophole might have allowed the car industry to meet the CAFE targets in fuel economy just by spending between USD 100 to USD 200 that it cost to turn a conventional vehicle into a flex-fuel, without investing in new technology to improve fuel economy, and saving them the potential fines for not achieving that standard in a given model year.[72][74]

[edit] Brazilian market

Brazilian Chevrolet Celta FlexPower.

GM's largest overseas subsidiary is General Motors do Brasil, which started producing flexible-fuel vehicles since its inception in the Brazilian market in 2003. Like other Brazilian flex-fuel vehicles, GM's flex fuel cars and light-duty trucks are optimized to run on any mix of E20-E25 gasoline and up to 100% hydrous ethanol fuel (E100).GM launched its first flex fuel in June 2003, the Chevrolet Corsa 1.8 FlexPower, just two months after the first flex car was launched by another Brazilian carmaker.

GM do Brasil also introduced the MultiPower engine in August 2004, which was capable of using natural gas (CNG), ethanol and gasoline (E20-E25 blend) as fuel, and it was used in the multifuel Chevrolet Astra 2.0 model 2005, aimed at the local taxi cab market.[77][78] The Brazilian GM Powertrain unit also developed the EconoFlex technology, used for the first time in the Chevrolet Prisma 1.4, which allows the flex fuel engine to maximize fuel economy and power.

Due to the success and rapid consumer acceptance of the flex versions, GM sold 192,613 flex vehicles and 135,636 gasoline-powered automobiles in 2005, jumping to 501,681 flex-fuel vehicles, while only 949 cars and 6,834 light trucks powered by gasoline were sold in 2007, and reaching new car sales of 535.454 flex fuels in 2008, representing 97 percent of all cars and light duty trucks sold in that year.

Company overview of General Motors


General Motors GMT800 truck assembly line.

In 2009, General Motors employs approximately 244,500 people around the world. General Motors' global headquarters is the Renaissance Center located in Detroit, Michigan, United States. In 2008, GM sold 8.35 million cars and trucks globally.[11] GM is the majority shareholder in GM Daewoo Auto & Technology Co. of South Korea and has collaborations with Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation of China, AvtoVAZ of Russia, and most recently, UzAvtosanoa of Uzbekistan. GM has had collaborations with various automakers including Fiat (see GM/Fiat Premium platform) and Ford Motor Company.[citation needed] GM retains various stakes in different automakers.

GM received loans from European governments in 2009, and has reduced its ownership stake in European operations as part of its reorganization." As of July 10, 2009, the new GM has over $40B in cash, with the company's reorganized liability total of $48.8 B which includes $24.4 B to be paid to the Voluntary Employee Benefits Association (VEBA) trust, $9 B to the U.S. and Canadian governments, and $15 B in liabilities to suppliers and other bills. GM is slated to pay $10 B to the VEBA trust in December 2009, with the remainder being paid in increments from 2012-19. GM isn't required to make contributions to its pension fund until 2013, but it may elect to if needed, since the company contribued $15.2 B to its pension fund in 2003. Stock market conditions cause the fund value to fluctuate. In February 2009, GM's combined pension fund had about $85 B in assets, $56B in assets for hourly pensions and $29B in assets for salaried pensions. The domain name gm.com attracted at least 7 million visitors annually by 2008.

GM worldwide vehicle sales by country 2008[15]
in GM
Country Vehicle
share (%)

in GM
Country Vehicle
share (%)
United States 2,981

Australia 133
China 1,095

Republic of Korea 117
Brazil 549

France 114
United Kingdom 384

Spain 107
Canada 359

Argentina 95
Russia 338

Venezuela 91
Germany 300

Colombia 80
Mexico 212

India 66
Top 4 markets/regions by vehicle sales in 2008 (thousands)
North America 3,552

European Union 905
China 1,095

South America 815


General Motors is structured into the following operating groups:

Group Number of employees
September 2008
GMAP (GM Asia-Pacific) 35,000
GM LAAM (GM Latin America, Africa and the Middle East) 36,000
GMNA (GM North America) 123,000
GMAC (GM Acceptance Corporation – finance and insurance services)
SPO (Service, Parts and Operations)
Other operations 2,000
Total number of employees 252,000


  • Edward Whitacre, Jr. - Chairman of the Board of the Directors
  • Fritz Henderson - Chief Executive Officer
  • Ray Young - Chief Financial Officer (announced resignation)
  • Robert "Bob" Lutz - Vice Chairman
  • Tom Stephens - Vice Chairman
  • Edward "Ed" Welburn - Global Vice President of General Motors Design, current and only the sixth head designer.

On July 23, 2009, GM announced its new Board of Directors: Daniel F. Akerson, David Bonderman, Robert D. Krebs, Patricia F. Russo along with current members Ed Whitacre (GM Chairman) and Fritz Henderson (GM CEO). Board members who are not GM employees will be paid $200,000 annually.

The Renaissance Center in Detroit, Michigan, is General Motors' world headquarters.


General Motors was founded on September 16, 1908, in Flint, Michigan, as a holding company for Buick, then controlled by William C. Durant. It acquired Oldsmobile later that year. In 1909, Durant brought in Cadillac, Elmore, Oakland and several others. Also in 1909, General Motors acquired the Reliance Motor Truck Company of Owosso, Michigan, and the Rapid Motor Vehicle Company of Pontiac, Michigan, the predecessors of GMC Truck. Durant lost control of GM in 1910 to a bankers' trust, because of the large amount of debt taken on in its acquisitions coupled with a collapse in new vehicle sales. A few years later, Durant started the Chevrolet Motor car company and through this he secretly purchased a controlling interest in GM. Durant took back control of the company after one of the most dramatic proxy wars in American business history. Durant then reorganized General Motors Company into General Motors Corporation. Shortly after, he again lost control, this time for good, after the new vehicle market collapsed. Alfred P. Sloan was picked to take charge of the corporation and led it to its post war global dominance. This unprecedented growth of GM would last into the early 1980s when it employed 349,000 workers and operated 150 assembly plants.

GM previously led in global sales for 77 consecutive years (1931 to 2007), longer than any other automaker.

Chapter 11 reorganization

On July 10, 2009, a new entity, NGMCO Inc. purchased the ongoing operations and trademarks from General Motors Corporation.The purchasing company in turn changed its name from NGMCO Inc. to General Motors Company, marking the emergence of a new operation from the "pre-packaged" Chapter 11 reorganization.[21][22][23] Under the reorganization process, termed a 363 sale (for Section 363 which is located in Title 11, Chapter 3, Subchapter IV of the United States Code, a part of the Bankruptcy Code), the purchaser of the assets of a company in bankruptcy proceedings is able to obtain approval for the purchase from the court prior to the submission of a re-organization plan, free of liens and other claims. It’s used in most Chapter 11 cases that involve a sale of property or other assets. This process is typical of large organizations with complex branding and intellectual property rights issues upon exiting bankruptcy. The new company plans to issue an initial public offering (IPO) of stock in 2010.

GM's remaining pre-petition creditors' claims are paid from the remaining assets of Motors Liquidation Company, the new name of the former General Motors Corporation, although the directors of that company believe its debts far outweigh its assets. This means that while the former GM's bondholders may recover a small portion of their investment, former GM shareholders (now shareholders of Motors Liquidation Company) will likely not receive anything.

Also on July 10, 2009, GM announced plans to trim its U.S. workforce by 20,000 employees as part of its reorganization by the end of 2009 due to economic conditions.

The following table is a comparison (estimates) of the new GM and the old GM:

Old GM (1908 - 2009) New GM (2009 - )
Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, Daewoo, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Oldsmobile, Opel, Pontiac, Saab, Saturn, Vauxhall Brands Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet,
Daewoo (44%), GMC, Holden,
Opel, Vauxhall
5,900 US Dealerships 3,600
Common shareholders, bondholders and secured creditors Ownership The United States Treasury, the Crown in Right of Canada, Old GM bondholders, and UAW union
47 US Plants 34
$176 billion Debt $48 billion
91,000 US employees 68,500

General Motors

General Motors.svg

General Motors Company, also known as simply GM, is a United States based automaker with headquarters in Detroit, Michigan.http://blog.cleveland.com/business/2008/11/large_General-Motors-losses.jpg

GM was the world's 18th largest corporate entity and third largest automaker as ranked by 2008 revenues on the Fortune Global 500. Ranked by global unit sales for 2008, it was the world's second largest automaker. GM manufactures cars and trucks in 34 countries, recently employed 244,500 people around the world, and sells and services vehicles in some 140 countries.

On July 10, 2009 GM emerged from a Chapter 11 bankruptcy reorganization and is now majority owned by the United States Treasury and Canadian governments, with the US government investing a total of $57.6 billion under the Troubled Asset Relief Program.

While no GM shares are currently available to the public, the company plans an initial public stock offering (IPO) in 2010.

GM plans to focus its business on its four core US brands — Chevrolet, Cadillac, Buick, and GMC. In Europe, following a period of negotiation to sell a majority stake in its Opel and Vauxhall brands, GM decided to retain full ownership of these operations.'


Company overview of Toyota


Toyota started in 1933 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1a/Toyota_Model_AA.jpgas a division of Toyoda Automatic Loom Works devoted to the production of automobiles under the direction of the founder's son, Kiichiro Toyoda.[14] Its first vehicles were the A1 passenger car and the G1 in 1935. Toyota Motor Co. was established as an independent company in 1937.

Company overview


With over 30 million sold, the Corolla is one of the most popular and best selling cars in the world.

The Toyota Motor Company received its first Japanese Quality Control Award at the start of the 1980s and began participating in a wide variety of motorsports. Due to the 1973 oil crisis, consumers in the lucrative U.S. market began turning to small cars with better fuel economy. American car manufacturers had considered small economy cars to be an "entry level" product, and their small vehicles employed a low level of quality in order to keep the price low.

By the early sixties, the US had begun placing stiff import tariffs on certain vehicles. The Chicken tax of 1964 placed a 25% tax on imported commercials vans. In response to the tariff, Toyota, Nissan Motor Co. and Honda Motor Co. began building plants in the U.S. by the early eighties.

In 1982, the Toyota Motor Company and Toyota Motor Sales merged into one company, the Toyota Motor Corporation. Two years later, Toyota entered into a joint venture with GM called NUMMI, the New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc, operating an automobile-manufacturing plant in Fremont, California. The factory was an old General Motors plant that had been closed for two years. Toyota then started to establish new brands at the end of the 1980s, with the launch of their luxury division Lexus in 1989.

In the 1990s, Toyota began to branch out from producing mostly compact cars by adding many larger and more luxurious vehicles to its lineup, including a full-sized pickup, the T100 (and later the Tundra); several lines of SUVs; a sport version of the Camry, known as the Camry Solara; and the Scion brand, a group of several affordable, yet sporty, automobiles targeted specifically to young adults. Toyota also began production of the world's best-selling hybrid car, the Prius, in 1997.

With a major presence in Europe, due to the success of Toyota Team Europe, the corporation decided to set up TMME, Toyota Motor Europe Marketing & Engineering, to help market vehicles in the continent. Two years later, Toyota set up a base in the United Kingdom, TMUK, as the company's cars had become very popular among British drivers. Bases in Indiana, Virginia and Tianjin were also set up. In 1999, the company decided to list itself on the New York and London Stock Exchange.

Toyota Deutschland's headquarters in Cologne

In 2001, Toyota's Toyo Trust and Banking merged to form the UFJ, United Financials of Japan, which was accused of corruption by the Japan's government for making bad loans to alleged Yakuza crime syndicates with executives accused of blocking Financial Service Agency inspections. The UFJ was listed among Fortune Magazine's largest money-losing corporations in the world, with Toyota's chairman serving as a director. At the time, the UFJ was one of the largest shareholders of Toyota. As a result of Japan's banking crisis, the UFJ was merged again to become Mitsubishi UFJ Financial Group.

In 2002, Toyota managed to enter a Formula One works team and establish joint ventures with French motoring companies Citroën and Peugeot, a year after Toyota started producing cars in France.

Toyota ranked eighth on Forbes 2000 list of the world's leading companies for the year 2005. The company was number one in global automobile sales for the first quarter of 2008.

On December 7, 2004, a U.S. press release was issued stating that Toyota would be offering Sirius Satellite Radios. However, as late as January 27, 2007, Sirius Satellite Radio and XM Satellite radio kits were not available for Toyota factory radios.[citation needed] While the press release enumerated nine models, only limited availability existed at the dealer level in the U.S. As of 2008, all Toyota and Scion models have either standard or available XM radio kits. Major Lexus dealerships have been offering satellite radio kits for Lexus vehicles since 2005, in addition to factory-equipped satellite radio models.

In 2007, Toyota released an update of its full size truck, the Tundra, produced in two American factories, one in Texas and one in Indiana. "Motor Trend" named the Tundra "Truck of the Year," and the 2007 Toyota Camry "Car of the Year" for 2007. It also began the construction of two new factories, one to build the RAV4 in Woodstock, Ontario, Canada and the other to build the Toyota Prius in Blue Springs, Mississippi, USA. This plant was originally intended to build the Toyota Highlander, but Toyota decided to use the plant in Princeton, Indiana, USA instead. The company has also found recent success with its smaller models - the Corolla and Yaris - as gas prices have risen rapidly in the last few years.

Logo and Branding

The 1936 Toyota Model AA, with the original Toyoda logo

In 1936, in anticipation for the launch for the Model AA, which was Toyota's first passenger car, Toyoda held a public competition to establish a new symbol mark to promote its vehicles. The company indicated that the new design should convey the feeling of speed. Twenty-seven thousand entrants answered the call and submitted their ideas to Toyoda. The winning design led to a change in the name of the automobiles and plants from "Toyoda" to "Toyota." The name change made the Japanese lettering more streamlined and was also chosen because the number of strokes to write Toyota in Japanese (eight) was thought to bring luck and prosperity. The sound of the word "Toyota" was also deemed more appealing. The Model AA was subsequently launched with the new logo. While the logo is no longer used on any product the mark is still used today as the corporate emblem of Toyota Motor Corporation and can be seen on their Headquarters in Aichi.

As the company expanded in the decades ahead, Toyota sought ways to consolidate the brand and raise international brand awareness. Although the mark "TOYOTA," in roman type, was in wide use, the lack of branding guidelines meant interpretation differed from country to country, resulting in an inconsistent global message.

MEGAWEB, Toyota's permanent exhibition showroom and museum in Odaiba, Tokyo

Toyota's current logo used on its vehicles was introduced in 1989, to differentiate the Toyota brand from the newly launched Lexus brand. The Toyota Mark consists of three ovals: the two perpendicular center ovals represent a relationship of mutual trust between the customer and Toyota. These ovals combine to symbolize the letter "T" for Toyota. The space in the background implies a global expansion of Toyota's technology and unlimited potential for the future. The logo appears with the "TOYOTA" letter type that had been in use before.

The logo started appearing on all printed material, advertisements, and dealer signage starting in 1990 and on the cars themselves in 1991.



Toyota Motor Corporation logo

The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937 as a spinoff from his father's company Toyota Industries to create automobiles. Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, and, in 1936, its first passenger car, the Toyota AA. Toyota also owns and operates Lexus and Scion brands and has a majority shareholding stake in Daihatsu and Hino Motors, and minority shareholdings in Fuji Heavy Industries, Isuzu Motors, Yamaha Motors, and Mitsubishi Aircraft Corporation. The company includes 522 subsidiaries.

Toyota is headquartered in Toyota City, Aichi and in Tokyo. In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota provides financial services through its division Toyota Financial Services and also builds robots. Toyota Motor Corporation (including Toyota Financial Services) and Toyota Industries form the bulk of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in the world.

On May 8, 2009, Toyota reported a record annual net loss of US$4.4 billion, making it the latest automobile maker to be severely affected by the 2007-2009 financial crisis.

Top vehicle manufacturing groups

The table below shows the world's largest motor vehicle manufacturing groups, along with the marques produced by each one. The table is ranked by 2008 end of year production figures from the International Organization of Motor Vehicle Manufacturers (OICA)[21] for the parent group, and then alphabetically by marque.

Marque Country of origin Ownership Markets
1. Toyota Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Daihatsu Japan Subsidiary Global, except North America and Australia
Hino Japan Subsidiary Asia Pacific, North America and South America
Lexus Japan Division Global
Scion United States Division North America
Toyota Japan Division Global
2. General Motors Company ( United States)
Buick United States Division North America, China, Israel, Taiwan
Cadillac United States Division Global, except South America, India, SE Asia, Australia
Chevrolet United States Division Global, except Australia
Daewoo South Korea Subsidiary South Korea
GMC United States Division North America, Middle East
Holden Australia Subsidiary Australia, New Zealand
Hummer* United States Division Global, except South America, China, India
Opel Germany Division Europe (except UK), Russia, South Africa, Mid East, China, India
Pontiac* United States Division North America
Saab* Sweden Subsidiary Global, except India, South America
Saturn* United States Subsidiary North America
Vauxhall United Kingdom Subsidiary United Kingdom
3. Volkswagen AG** ( Germany)
Audi Germany Subsidiary Global
Bentley United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Bugatti France Subsidiary Global
Lamborghini Italy Subsidiary Global
Porsche Germany Subsidiary Global
Scania Sweden Subsidiary Global
SEAT Spain Subsidiary Europe, South America, North Africa, Lebanon
Škoda Czech Republic Subsidiary Global, except North America and South Africa
Volkswagen Passenger Cars Germany Subsidiary Global
Volkswagen Commercial Vehicles Germany Subsidiary Global
4. Ford Motor Company ( United States)
Ford United States Division Global
Lincoln United States Division North America, Middle East, South Korea
Mercury United States Division North America, Middle East
Troller Brazil Subsidiary South America and Africa
Volvo*** Sweden Subsidiary Global
5. Honda Motor Company ( Japan)
Acura Japan Division North America, China, Russia
Honda Japan Division Global
6. Nissan Motor Company ( Japan)
Infiniti Japan Division Global, except South America and Africa
Nissan Japan Division Global
7. PSA Peugeot Citroën S.A. ( France)
Citroën France Subsidiary Global, except North America, India
Peugeot France Subsidiary Global, except North America, India
8. Hyundai Motor Company ( South Korea)
Hyundai South Korea Division Global
9. Suzuki Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Maruti Suzuki India Subsidiary India, Middle East, South America
Suzuki Japan Division Global
10. Fiat S.p.A. ( Italy)
Abarth Italy Subsidiary Global, except North America
Alfa Romeo Italy Subsidiary Global
Ferrari Italy Subsidiary Global
Fiat Italy Subsidiary Global, except North America
Fiat Professional Italy Subsidiary Global, except North America
Irisbus France Subsidiary Global, except North America
Iveco Italy Subsidiary Global, except North America
Lancia Italy Subsidiary Europe
Maserati Italy Subsidiary Global
11. Renault S.A. ( France)
Dacia Romania Subsidiary Europe, Latin America, Asia, Africa
Renault (cars) France Division Global, except North America, India
Renault Samsung South Korea Subsidiary Asia, South America
12. Daimler AG ( Germany)
Freightliner United States Subsidiary North America, South Africa
Maybach Germany Division Global
Mercedes-AMG Germany Division Global
Mercedes-Benz Germany Division Global
Mitsubishi Fuso Japan Subsidiary Global
Orion Canada Subsidiary North America
Setra Germany Subsidiary Europe
Smart Germany Division North America, Europe, Southeast Asia, South Africa
Thomas Built United States Subsidiary North America
Western Star United States Subsidiary North America
13. Chrysler Group LLC ( United States)
Chrysler United States Division Global
Dodge United States Division Global
GEM United States Division North America
Jeep United States Division Global
14. BMW AG ( Germany)
BMW Germany Division Global
MINI United Kingdom Division Global
Rolls-Royce United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
15. Kia Motors Corporation ( South Korea)
Kia South Korea Division Global
16. Mazda Motor Corporation ( Japan)
Mazda Japan Division Global
17. Mitsubishi Motors Corporation ( Japan)
Mitsubishi Japan Division Global
18. OAO AvtoVAZ ( Russia)
Lada Russia Division Russia, Europe, North Africa
VAZ Russia Division Russia, Europe
19. Tata Motors Ltd ( India)
Daimler United Kingdom Subsidiary United Kingdom
Hispano Spain Subsidiary Europe
Jaguar United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Land Rover United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
Tata India Division India, South Africa
Tata Daewoo South Korea Subsidiary South Korea
20. First Automotive Group Corporation ( People's Republic of China)
Besturn People's Republic of China Division China
Freewind People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
Haima People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
Hongqi People's Republic of China Division China
Jiaxing People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
Vita People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
Xiali People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
21. Fuji Heavy Industries Ltd ( Japan)
Subaru Japan Division Global
22. Isuzu Motors Ltd ( Japan)
Isuzu Japan Division Global, except North America
23. Chana Automobile Company Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Chana People's Republic of China Division China, South Africa
24. Dongfeng Motor Corporation ( People's Republic of China)
Dongfeng People's Republic of China Division China
25. Beijing Automotive Industry Holding Corporation, Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
BAW People's Republic of China Division China
Foton People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
26. Chery Automobile Company Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Chery People's Republic of China Division China, Africa, Southeast Asia, Russia
27. Shanghai Automotive Industry Corporation ( People's Republic of China)
MG United Kingdom Subsidiary United Kingdom, Chile, Argentina
Roewe People's Republic of China Division China
Soyat People's Republic of China Division China
SsangYong South Korea Subsidiary South Korea, South Africa, Europe, Australia
Yuejin People's Republic of China Division China
28. AB Volvo ( Sweden)
Mack United States Subsidiary Global
Nissan Diesel Japan Subsidiary Global
NovaBus Canada Subsidiary North America
Prevost Canada Subsidiary North America
Renault (trucks) France Subsidiary Global
Volvo (trucks) Sweden Division Global
29. Brilliance China Automotive Holding Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Brilliance People's Republic of China Division China, North Africa
Jinbei People's Republic of China Subsidiary China
30. Harbin Hafei Automobile Industry Group Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Hafei People's Republic of China Division China
31. Geely Automobile ( People's Republic of China)
Geely People's Republic of China Division China, Russia, North Africa
Maple People's Republic of China Division China
32. Anhui Jianghuai Automobile Company Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
JAC People's Republic of China Division China
33. BYD Auto ( People's Republic of China)
BYD People's Republic of China Division China, Russia
34. GAZ Group ( Russia)
GAZ Russia Division Russia
KAvZ Russia Subsidiary Russia
LiAZ Russia Subsidiary Russia
Ural Russia Subsidiary Russia
35. Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd ( India)
Mahindra India Division India, South East Asia, Europe, North Africa
36. Proton Holdings Bhd ( Malaysia)
Proton Malaysia Division Asia, Australia, South Africa, UK
Lotus United Kingdom Subsidiary Global
37. Great Wall Motor Company Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Great Wall People's Republic of China Division China, South Africa, Russia, North Africa
38. Paccar Inc ( United States)
DAF Netherlands Subsidiary Global, except North America
Kenworth United States Division North America
Leyland United Kingdom Subsidiary Europe
Peterbilt United States Division North America
39. Chongqing Lifan Automobile Company Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Lifan People's Republic of China Division China
40. MAN SE ( Germany)
MAN Germany Division Europe
Neoplan Germany Division Europe and Middle East
Volkswagen Trucks and Buses Brazil Division South America
41. Jiangxi Changhe Automobile Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Changhe People's Republic of China Division China
42. China National Heavy Duty Truck Group Company Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Sinotruk Hong Kong Division China
43. LuAZ ( Ukraine)
LuAZ Ukraine Subsidiary Ukraine
44. Navistar International Corporation ( United States)
IC United States Subsidiary North America
International United States Division North America
45. Shaanxi Automobile Group Company Ltd ( People's Republic of China)
Shaanxi People's Republic of China Division China
46. UAZ OJSC ( Russia)
UAZ Russia Subsidiary Russia
47. Ashok Leyland ( India)
Ashok Leyland India Division India
48. Kuozui Motors Ltd ( Taiwan)
Kuozui Motors Republic of China Subsidiary Taiwan